The Battle of Boomplaats and Zwartkopjes






Monday, May 23, 2022 to Friday, May 30, 2025




Permit for research on the archaeology of conflict on a colonial frontier focusing on the encounters in the Orange River Sovereignity in the 1840s looking at the Battles of Zwartkopjes (1845) and Bloomplaats (1848) on Farms Excelsior 284, Bloompaats 540, and Zwartkopjes 86.

1. This permit is issued to Willem Hutten (Archaeology Department, University of South Africa).

2. If the permit holder is not to be present on the site at all times then SAHRA must be provided with the names and qualifications of the authorised representatives.

3. Excavation activities will include the use of metal detectors. A site map must be created and a total station must be used to record the finds.

4. Adequate recording methods as specified in the Regulations and Guidelines pertaining to the National Heritage Resources Act must be employed. Note that the position of all excavations and objects collected must be marked on a plan of the site. Materials will be bagged per quadrant and labeled carefully.

5. A standard site record form must be lodged with the National Museum Bloemfontein.

6. All material collected and excavated, as well as field notes and records, will be curated by the National Museum Bloemfontein, who will be responsible for the permanent curation and safekeeping of all artefactual material in a condition that allows ongoing research.

7. Annual permit reports on the results of the excavations and analyses must be emailed to on or before 31 May 2023 and 2024, and a final permit report on or before 31 May 2025 using the template in the following link: SAHRA reserves the right to withhold further permits if progress is not deemed satisfactory. Permit reports can be made available to researchers on request within three years of the lapsing of this permit.

8. Reprints of all published papers or copies of theses and/or reports resulting from this work must be lodged with SAHRA.

9. It is the responsibility of the permit holder to obtain permission from the landowner for each visit, and the excavator is responsible for ensuring that he or she has an understanding with the landowner concerning: the number of visitors and workers; conditions for camping on the property; speed limits on access roads; possible prohibitions on off-road driving; size, type and number of vehicles permitted; possible prohibitions on trespassing beyond the site; disturbing fauna, flora or substrate; erection and demolition of structures on the site; appropriate hours of visiting and working on the site; use of firewood, electricity and water; lighting fires and the prevention of uncontrolled fires and any fencing necessary to protect livestock. Conditions of access imposed by the landowner must be observed.

10. The permitted excavator shall be responsible for the activities and impacts of all colleagues, students and employees under his or her supervision.

11. Excavators must take measures to ensure the safety of any person who may enter the excavation site as part of their excavation team or as their visitor.

12. It is the responsibility of the permit holder to protect sites during and after excavation and to ensure that, where appropriate, excavations are filled in or stabilised with adequate materials (e.g. Loffelstein blocks or army bags in geotextile) to the satisfaction of SAHRA and the landowner.

13. SAHRA shall not be liable for any losses, damages or injuries to persons or properties as a result of any activities in connection with this permit.

14. SAHRA acknowledges consent provided by  (the) landowner(s) in support of this research project.

15. SAHRA reserves the right to cancel this permit by notice to the permit holder.

16. This permit is subject to a general appeal and may be suspended should an appeal against the decisions be received by SAHRA within 14 days from the date of the permit. SAHRA may not be held responsible for any costs or losses incurred in the event of the suspension or retraction of this permit.

17. Request to renew permits must be done at least two months prior to the expiry of the existing permit.



PDF of Permit: 

PDF icon Permit 18117.pdf96.41 KB

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